The most critical time of the year is the day you pick. From here on, you have to considered how to make wine from grapes. It sets in motion the annual harvest, and it also determines the kind of wine you’ll make. As a grape grower and a winemaker, you should keep a notebook. You’ll be glad to have records in the months and years to come. Let’s start with sight, touch, smell, and taste. You want your grapes to be rich in color, not green.

Here you can see how to make wine from grapes. O.K. this is the recipe for making homemade grape wine for the small amount.

Now let’s try to follow the instructions how to make wine from grapes that apply to large producers.

Harvesting the Grapes

It’s not a secret that from better grapes you can produce better wine. The most critical day of the year is the day you pick. With this decision, you determine the character of wine you’ll make.

 Step by Step Process. 

  • A grape’s terroir: Effects of the season, weather, soil, mineral, time of harvest, pruning method and acidity=quality, aroma and flavor
    • Harvest time = grape’s level
      •  sugar(Brix)) usually > 15
    • Acid levels – Tartaric acid
    • pH
  • Other harvest factors:
    • Tannin development(seed color and taste)
  • De-stemming(removal of stems) depends on winemaking techniques
    • Stems and seeds = tannins
    • White wines – stems intact
    • Red wines – stems removed

Varietals

There are over 10,000 documented wine grape varieties in the world. But there are certain names which are more popular. The most recognizable grape varieties are known in the wine world as international varieties.

  • Over 10000 varieties of grapes in the world
  • Vitis vinifera
    • Most common species of grapes
    • Almost all the European varieties
    • Every continent except Antartica
  • Vitis Silvestris: ancestor of modern wine
  • Grapes Uses
    • 71% Wine
    • 27% Fresh Fruit
    • 2% Dried fruit
  • Top wine production regions: Italy, France, Spain, US, and Argentina
  • Grafting Root Stock

Chemistry of the Grape

It may sound strange, and it may make you get different friends, but all those different smells and tastes come from complex chemistry that gives each bottle of wine its unique flavors. First off, sorry high rollers, but no matter how much you paid for it, a bottle of wine is about 98 percent water and ethanol.

  • 70-90% Water
  • 18-25% Glucose & Fructose
  • 0,3-1,5% Tartic & Malic Acids
  • 0,7% Amino acids
  • 0,15% Potassium
  • <0,1% Esters
  • <0,1% Polyphenols
  • Trace Amount Vitamin A, Vitamin C
Flavor and Aroma table

Crushing the Grapes

Everyone knows the old way of doing. It was to dump the grapes into a container, step into the container with bare feet and start to stomp. If you prefer you can still crush grapes with your feet but if not you might want to try what kind of handy machine.

  • Crushing = start liberation of juice from the grape
  • The Must = juice, skins, seeds, pulp
  • Must contain molds and native yeast
    • Natural is not better
  • Grape components crushed = winemaking method and variety of wine
  • White Wines
    • Stems can be intact
    • Increases tannins
    • Reduce exposure to color in skins
    • Skins directly removed
  • Rose Wines
    • Red-skinned grapes with minimal skin contact
    • White and red grapes
  • White Wines
    • Stems usually removed
    • Contact with skin encouraged to varying degrees

Potassium metabisulfite and SO2

Potassium metabisulfite is used in wine and meat making to sterilize the must and also used with sorbate to stabilize your wine or meat. Adding some Sulfur Dioxide(SO2) or Potassium metabisulfite protects the wine from flaws.

  • Added during many stages
    • Campden tablets = 1/2g potassium or sodium metabisulfite
  • Levels in the wine
    • Commercial wine = 20 to 40 ppm
    • Natural wines as low as 6ppm
      • Obie’s wines: no added sulfites; drink within 3-4 years
  •  Produces SO2
    • Kills native yeast=antimicrobial
    • Anti-oxidant
      • Binds w/ acetaldehyde
      • Binds w/ anthocyanins
        •  red wine = problem
        •  Anthocyanins bind to tannins

Sulfites

Should you be worried about sulfites? No, you should not be worried about sulfites. It’s a naturally occurring thing in a lot of foods grapes have them. It’s a natural part of the fermentation process.

  • =K2S2O5 contributes to sulfites in wine
  • = Contains Sulfites = added sulfite compounds
    • – Warning labels
      •         – 1987 US
      •         – 2005 EU
  • = All wines have sulfites
    • – Sweet and White > Reds
    • – Fermentation process = 6 to 40 ppm sulfites
    • – US levels allowed = 350 ppm

Red Wine Headaches

More likely reason that you’re getting headaches from store-bought red wines and store-bought dry white wines is a secondary fermentation process that happens in commercial wineries. This is so-called malolactic fermentation. So let me explain what this is. You ferment the grape juice into wine, and then a secondary fermentation process takes place or with inoculation of malolactic bacteria, or it happens from naturally occurring bacteria in the atmosphere. Now what that does is that changes malic acid which is quite a harsh acid into lactic acid which is a much softer milky acid. And it rounds the wine out gives it a more excellent taste profile, but a byproduct of malolactic fermentation is histamine. So if you ever drink red wine, you get a stuffy nose or watery eyes or a headache that’s malolactic fermentation. Our juice arrives at the winery with the lactic acid levels already elevated. So we don’t have to do malolactic fermentation, and you don’t get a headache, and you can consume as much wine as you like.

  • Occurs after drinking red winesHeadache
    • little as one glass
  • Usually blamed on sulfites
    • – Only 0,01% population are allergic to sulfites = asthmatics
  •  Un-metabolized acetaldehyde causes headaches
  • Possible other causes:
    • Histamines
    • Tannins
      • Cause release of serotonin
  • Prostaglandin release
    • Cause pain and swelling
    • Strains of yeast or bacteria

Punching Down the Must

The point is to take all berries which are at the top and sink them into the most. That’s all. So in this way, the most and the juice will extract more elements from the berries. So that’s the point. Try to have more skin contact and extraction. We do that during fermentation almost every day twice a day, three times a day.

  • ‘Cap’ – skins, seeds etc. top of juice – Co2
  • Punching down the must
    • Juice mix with skins = color and flavor extraction
    • Introduce O2 to yeast = fermentation
    • prevent harmful bacteria growth
    • lower the must temperature
      • Preserve delicate aroma compounds
      • Increases production of esters
      • Keep yeast growing
        • Red wines 22 to 25
        • White wines 15 to 18
  • Cultured, selected yeast added
    • Begining of primary fermentation
      • 1-2 weeks
      • Converts most of the sugar to ethanol

Fermentation Reactions

Yeast which is a type of fungus converts sugar into alcohol to obtain energy and bacteria convert sugar into lactic acid to obtain energy. There are two types of fermentation. We have ethanol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.

  • Bacteria or yeast consumes one compound and excretes different products
    • Fruit(sucrose/fructose/glucose) + Yeast = Alcohol Ethanol
    • Milk (lactose) + Bacteria = Cheese
    • Flour(sugars) + Yeast = Bread
    • Ethanol + Yeast = Acetic acid(Vinegar)

Sugars

Sugar scientific name is sucrose. It’s not made in a lab or a factory but created by mother nature and found naturally an all known plant life on the planet. When plants absorb energy from the Sun water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air, they’re able to create sucrose by a process called photosynthesis. Sucrose is the starting point for the starches and fibers found in plants. The sugar in your sugar bowl is the same sugar found naturally in these fruits and vegetables.

  • Sugar level in wine = Brix
  • 1.0 Brix = 1% Sugar = 0.55% EtOH
  • Sugar level = alcohol content
  • Sugars = 1 fuel fermentation
  • Non-fermentable sugars
    • Arabinose, Rhamnose, and Xylose
    • Still, present after fermentation
    • No wine is ever completely ‘dry’
  • Chaptalization: Sucrose added to boost fermentable sugar content – boost the alcohol content
    • 17-18% alcohol highest level W/O added sucrose

Fermentable Sugars

Common knowledge is that glucose is the formal name of sugar and fructose is the official name for fruit sugar. This isn’t true. Table sugar or sugar as we know it is a one to one ratio chemical combination of glucose and fructose known as sucrose. This is different from what’s scientifically known as sugars because sugars are a biochemical compound that it’s a water-soluble carbohydrate that is typically sweet. So that includes so many things including lactose in milk that is sugar.

  • Glucose
    • One of the primary sugars of wine
    • 1st sugar metabolized by yeas
    • Tastes < sweet than Fructose
    • % Glucose beginning of ripening of grape(>5x Fructose
    • At harvest glucose = Fructose
  • Fructose
    • Over-ripen grapes > Fructose
    • Twice as sweet as glucose
      • Important for dessert wines
  • Sucrose
    • Minimal in wine, except champagne and sparkling wines

Alcohol – Ethanol

Alcohol. Alcohol or sometimes called ethanol fermentation. Because when we talk about drinking alcohol, we’re talking about ethanol. Ethanol fermentation as you might guess is the process by which alcohol is produced and things like bread. It’s used in baking a lot.

  • Alcohol content limited to 18% w/o sucrose addition
  • During fermentation. >9% Alcohol needed to prevent bacterial growth
    • Mother of Vinegar(Acetobacter)
  • Target alcohol = 13% Alcohol (24 Brix)
  • Final Ethanol Content varies by varietyWine Alcohol Table

Pressing the Grapes

The basic theory behind a wine press is to divide the fermented wine or juice (depending on if you’re doing whites or reds) from the skins, seeds, and pulp that make up the solid components of the grape. This is done by squeezing because centrifuge or some other similar process isn’t recommended for this purpose.

  • Pressure removes juice from pulp and skins
  • Gains 15-30% more juice
  • Pressed juice has lower acidity (higher pH) than drained juice
  • Red wines pressed after fermentation
  • White wine pressed before fermentation
  • Pressing releases different compound from layers of the grape
  • pH adjusted(3.0-3.7)
    • Tartaric or Malic Acid
    • Prevents bacterial growth
    • Gives tart flavor or zing
  • <1Brix before pumping into the barrel
    • Sweet wine <1Brix
      • Stabilized with Potassium Sorbate
  • Bubbler at the top of barrel to release Co2

Chemical Anatomy of the Grapes

Grape Berries

Grape anatomy is essential to any wine production. The wine has been produced for thousands of years, and it’s all because of this tiny little grape. It’s perfect for any wine drinker to understand why the grape is so essential. The main reason you’re drinking wine is that of the grape.

  • Seeds and Stems(Optional Inclusion)
    • Tannins
  • Skin
    • Anthocyanins
    • Quercetin
    • Reservatrol
    • Tannins
    • Catechins

Grape Skin and Seed Compounds

You have two phenolic compounds that are located inside of the grapes skin. You have anthocyanins saying and then you also have tannin. Anthocyanin is going to be the phenolic compound that gives red wine its color. Without the chemical or the phenolic compound anthocyanin, red wine will not get its color. If you don’t have any skin contact when you’re making the wine then that red grape is going to have a white juice.

  • Plant polyphenol
  • Binds and precipitates proteins and other compounds
  • 3 types: hydrolyzable, condensed and complex
  • Bad tannins (skins, seed, and stems)
    • Don’t polymerize
    • Produce bitter taste = astringency
  • Beneficial Tannins(Oak barrels)
    • Preservative
    • Wine clarification(Fining agents)
      • Proteins bind to tannins
      • Clarify wine: egg whites, gelatin, bentonite
    • Young Oak barrels = more tannins
  • Red wines(>tannins) pair with meats = hydrolyzable tannins
  • As tannins age – lose binding
    • fall to the bottom of the bottle
    • wine mellows

Grape Skin and Seed Compounds: Catechins

Flavanols or Catechins, with flavones such as luteolin such as luteolin and flavonols such as quercetin, are a subgroup of flavonoids. These flavones are among the most general in the world. Proanthocyanidins and Flavanols, together with anthocyanins and their oxidation results, are the most common flavonoids in the human food intake.

  • Flavanols
  • Also found in chocolate
  • React with tannins to make primary flavor components in wine
  • Larger flavanol – tannin complexes – mellow
  • Smaller flavanol – tannin complexes – bitter
  • Concentrations in red wine 10mg/L to 250 mg/L
    • Lighter bodied wine > catechin content

Grape Skin and Seed Compounds: Anthocyanins

Anthocyanins don’t contribute a lot to the taste of wine. But they play a significant role in tannin retention in and aging. We have to know that anthocyanins readily polymerize with tannins. There is an intimate association between wine color and anthocyanins. The systematic investigation into this miracle has yielded a complicated set of interactions that contributes insight into the color resistance of wine.

  • Water-soluble pigments of red, purple or blue (pH)
  • Flavenoids
  • Antioxidants
  • Odorless and almost flavorless
  • Polymerize with tannins
  • Important in tannin retention and aging of wine
  • Five groups of anthocyanins and presence depended on varietal of grape and wine
    • >  free hydroxyl groups = blueness
    • > methyl groups = redness
    • Malvin group – red grapes

Grape Skin and Seed Compounds

Seeds are large concentrated areas that tannin is kept. Winemakers, when making wine if they don’t want that extra tannin there will be careful when pressing the actual grape not to crush the seeds. If you break the seeds that are going to give unwanted tannins about ending wine. That is going to give that bitter, astringent quality. A lot of winemakers will choose not to incorporate into their wine.

  • Quercetin
    • Flavanoid
    • Antioxidant
    • Found in the skin of the grape
    • React with anthocyanins
      • deeper vibrant color
  • Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene)
    • Phenol produced by plants when under attack by bacteria and fungi
    • Found on the skin of the grape
    • Antioxidant works in conjunction with Quercetin
    • Reported health benefits
  • Gallic Acid: Phenolic compound
    • Antifungal and Antiviral compound
    • Found in seeds and from exposure to new oak
    • 10 – 100 g/L in wine
  • Succinic Acid: Dicarboxylic acid
    • Considered flavor component
    • Salty bitter flavor in wine elsewhere for sweetness
    • React to form esters
    • Acid + Ethanol = mono-ethyl succinate(fruit aroma)
    • In grape and by-product of alcohol and sugar rxn
  • Caffeic Acid and Caftaric Acid: Cinnamates
    • Yellow gold color in white wine
    • Esterification rxn; Caffetic Acid + Tartaric Acid = Caftaric Acid
    • Oxidation > reaction
      • Presse wine has little to no Caftaric Acid

Grape Flesh Compound: Acids

Acid is an essential part of the winemaking process, and it’s an integral part of the overall wine experience. Acid naturally exists in fruit and grapes, and so obviously it’s going to exist to some degree in wine. Acid is a way of balancing out sugar and so you a winemaker will do certain things to wine to help control things like sugar and acid in general. Both white and red wine have about the same level of acidity but from different parts of the world wines like acidity levels vary.

  • Acids are important in winemaking and finished the wine
  • Primary Acids in Wine
    • Malic Acid
    • Tartaric Acid
  • = Other Acids in Wine
    • Acetic Acid
    • Ascorbic Acid
    • Butyric Acid
    • Citric Acid
    • Lactic Acid
    • Sorbic Acid

Grape Flesh Compound: Tartaric Acids

Tartaric acid is an organic acid. Its color is white. It appears as crystalline. It occurs naturally in various plants, especially in tamarinds and grapes. Tartaric acid is one of the essential acids discovered in wine. It is used as an antioxidant, and it is added to different foods to give a sour taste. Tartrates are salts of tartaric acid.

  • The most important acid in wine
  • Maintains chemical stability of wine
  • Influences Taste and Color
  • Grape vines – few sources of high natural concentration
  • Majority of acid = potassium acid salt(cream of tartar)
  • During fermentation, acid binds with pulp debris(lees), tannins, and pigments
  • Acid crystals can precipitate out
    • Wine Diamonds
    • Cold stabilization precipitates crystals

Grape Flesh Compound: Malic Acids

When you pick the grape, you’ve got a certain level of malic acidity, and in some vintages, it has dropped out more than others and then once the grape comes into your cellar you could have too high malic acid. Of course, too much or too little is never the best.

  • One of two Primary Acids in Wine
  • Carboxylic Diacid
  • Bitter, Tart taste
  • Associated with green apple flavor
  • Riesling = high malic acid
  • Cooler growing conditions > Malic acid
  • Decreases as grape ripen
  • Low malic acid = flat taste
  • High malic acid = sharp taste

Other Acids

Acid is one of the critical elements that give to the wine its character. There’s only a little bit of acid by volume in a bottle of wine usually less than a 4%. So compared to water and alcohol the two most significant components in a bottle of wine the acids in a bottle can seem like small stuff. But here as in many things, a little goes a long way. That 1/2 to 3/4 of a percent of acid in the bottle contributes in a big way to the wines longevity, and it’s age-worthiness. How well it goes with food and to the general pleasantness of wine.

Lactic Acid

  • Controlled by the winemaker
  • Milder than tartaric or malic acid
  • Creates a milky flavor
  • Rxn Lactic acid bacteria(LAB) and Malic acid
  • Chardonnays and other white wines
  • Some LAB-histamines cause RWH

Citric Acid

  • Very small quantities in the wine
  • Supplement for sucrose addition

Acetic Acid

  • Produced during or after fermentation
  • Vinegar taste above 300 mg/L
  • Acetobacter

Ascorbic Acid

  • Vitamin C
  • Found in young grapes
  • Lost to ripening
  • Added with SO2 as an antioxidant(EU limit 150 mg/L)

Butyric Acid

  • Bacteria causes wine fault
  • Smells like rancid butter or blue cheese

Sorbic Acid

  • Used as a preservative

Chemistry in a Glass

You can pay for wine a lot but in a bottle of wine is almost 97 percent water and ethanol. It’s the remaining pair percent that makes wine taste like wine, and more, makes a shiraz taste different than a pinot noir explicitly.

  • 70-90% Water
  • 6-23% Ethanol by Variety
  • 1-3% Pectins, Proteins, Acids
  • 1% Vitamins and Minerals
  • 1% Polyphenols, Flavenoids, Tannins and flavor compounds

Aging the Wine: Oak Barrels

The journey of French oak fermentation tanks for the tow colon project began approximately 170 years ago in the forest in the center of France. Oak trees are grown for 150 to 200 years at optimum maturity. They are harvested at optimum maturity and aged for five years in the natural elements of sun, wind, and rain. The lengthy aging is key to having the wood seasoned adequately, eliminating any green or sappy character.

  • The average age of a French Oaktree used for wine barrels is 170 years old.
  • Two major origins for Oak barrels
    • French and American
  • Seasoning
    • French oak traditionally aged or seasoned for two years
    • American oak kiln dried
  • Harvest
    • French Oak is split
    • American Oak is sawed
      • Ruptures xylem cells = release of lactones
  • Flavor: American Oak > French Oak
    • 2-4x > lactones . vanilla
  • First widespread use – Roman Empire
  • 400 species of Oak
  • 20 species used for wine barrels
  • One tree = 2 barrels
  • 5% of the trees used for barrels
  • Oak barrels are the source of tannins
    • New barrels = high tannins
    • Green oak = bad tannins
  • Porousness: oxidation and evaporation
    • 5-6 gal loss (59 gal barrel)
    • Angel’s Share
  • 5 vintages before oak character absent
    • staves sanded to open oak
    • Oak strips added to impart aroma

Other Flavor and Aroma influence of the Barrel

The Bordeaux barrel holds 225 liters.  Inside of this barrel that is going to be in contact with the wine is composed of a shell and two heads. The shell is toasted on the inside. The heads are generally not toasted. This means that the wine is in contact with different styles. So as the wine infuses in contact with the two square meters of wood it will be in contact with different toast intensities.

  • Toasting – exposure of oak barrel to fire and high temperatures
    • Reduces lactones (fresh oak aromas)
    • Increases vanilla and caramel aromas
      • Vanillin
      • Furfural
      • 5-Methyfurfal
    • High toast levels = spicy and smoky notes
      • Eugenol and Isoeugenol(spicy)
      • 4-methyl guaiacol (spicy and smoky
      • Guaiacol (smoky)
  • Add oak chips to increase aromas

Racking the Wine

The two reasons to rack your wine are to help clarify your wine and to prevent off flavors and aromas from the decomposing yeast. The 1st rack should be about 5-7 days after pitching yeast. It is to remove the gross lees. This is the chunky fruit lees that collect at the bottom of your fermentation vessel.

  • Racking:
    • Separate the wine from the solids, ‘lees’, settled at the bottom of the barrel
  • Clearing
    • Settling of small particulates and matter in wine over time

Bottling Process

Bottling is probably the most exciting part of the winemaking process. Here are quick instructions for the home-made wine producer. First of all, you have to assure that your equipment and bottles are sanitized well. Then you have to attach your bottling stem and siphon. Start the flow of wine with your siphon and start filling every bottle. Insert the corks into your bottles and properly store your wine. You can do this even with a hand corker.

  • Bottle Rinsing
    • Rinsed with Potassium metabisulfite
  • Bottles Filling
    • Wine dispensed into bottles
  • Corks are placed in the bottles
    • Headspace
  • = Capsules placed on bottles
    • Heat sealed

Bottles

There are three main bottle shapes used all over the world. Burgundy, Bordeaux, and flute bottle shape. The Burgundy bottle is very easily recognizable for the sloping shoulders. The Bordeaux bottle, on the other hand, has a broader shoulder. And finally, the floodwater shape the taller of the three is an elongated bottle. Of course, there are several types of bottles, which are not so well known.   

  • Shape: traditional, cultural or marketing
  • Before corks bottles were squat and flat-bottomed
  • After corks: store on sidelong and cylindrical

Corks

 How to cork a wine bottle?  We just need some sterile corks and a wine bottle corker. Here you can see how to do it.

  • The primary tree for corks is the Cork Oak, Quercus suber
  • Trees are 25 years old before the cork is stripped from the trunks every ten years
  • The tees live for about 200 years
  • Cork production
    • 52.5% Portugal
    • 29.5% Spain
    • 5.5% Italy

Cork Taint

  • ‘Corked Wine.’
    • Cork industry claims only 0.7 – 1.2% cork taint
  • Trichlorophenol compounds
  • Found in cork and methylated by fungi
  • The product is 2,4,6 trichloroanisole, TCA
  • Damp, moldy odor
  • A human detection limit of TCA is 1ppt
  • Eliminate with synthetic corks, screw caps
    • Also eliminates the ‘POP.’

Storage

  • Most modern wines are consumed within 24 hours after purchase(near-term consumption)
  • Most important factors:
    • – Light: light rxn with phenolic compounds
    • – Temperature:
      • Chemical rxn’s 2x every 8 C increase
      • IdealL 10 to 15 C
    • Humidity (75%): corks from drying
  • Wine refrigerators or Wine cellars keep constant light, temperature, and humidity

Health Benefits

Foods & Wine Magazine’s 8 Benefits of Drinking Wine(2007)

  • Reduce heart attack rate (-30% lower risk (Harward Public Health study))
  • Promotes longevity (- 34% lower mortality rate(Finnish Study))
  • Lower heart disease  (Quin Mary University, London)
  • Reduces risk of type 2 diabetes (-30% lower risk(Amsterdam VU Univ. Medical Center)
  • Lower risk of stroke (Clot risk drops 50% (Columbia University))
  • Cuts risk of cataracts (-32% risk reduction(Nature 2003)
  • Cuts risk of colon cancer (-45% risk reduction-especially red(Stony Brook))
  • Slows brain decline (reduced risk (Colombia University)

Calories in Wine and Alcohol

These days we’re all very interested in following a healthy eating and exercise regime. I’m often asked how many calories are in a glass of wine. There’s no easy answer I’m afraid because it depends on the grape varieties, where the grapes make the alcohol, and of course most importantly about the wine style. If it’s a drier style of wine, then it apparently has fewer calories than more opulent, sweeter, and concentrated wine styles. And it all changes from wine styles from vintage to vintage. So it can be quite tricky to calculate the calories in wine.

Recent studies report alcohol is not efficiently metabolized in the body.

  • N= T-(7cal/g)*(0,28g/oz%)*P*X=T-2*P*X
  • To calculate the metabolized calories (N):
    • N= net calories
    • T = total calories
    • X = #oz
    • P = % Alcohol

Pesticide in Wine

  • Grapes: one of the ‘Dirty Dozen’ of produce
  • 2008 Pesticide Action Network(PAN) Europe:
    • 128 pesticide residues in 40 bottles EU
    • Low ppm to ppb range
  • Studies being conducted to find out if the pesticide levels are of concern in wine
  • Studies have found Hazardous levels of metals in wine
    • Exceed EPA THQ(Target HAzard Quotients)
      • Vanadium
      • Copper
      • Manganese
      • Zinc
      • Chromium
      • Nickel
      • Lead
  • Wors countries for metal levels:
    • Hungary, Slovakia, France, Austria, Spain, Germany, Portugal, Greece
  • SPEX CertiPrep carries a full line of Inorganic standards
    • Heavy Metal Mixes
    • Heavy Metal Standards
  • UL and A2LA Stamp of Approval:
    • Certified by UL-DQS for ISO 9001
    • Accredited by A2LA for ISO 17025 and ISO Guide 34
  • Inorganic CRMs for:
    • AA & GFAA
    • ICP & ICP-MS
    • IC
    • XRF
    • Classical Wet Chemistry Techniques
  • Single element standards 1,000 mg/L and 10.000 mg/L concentrations
  • Custom standards at almost any concentration
        • https://www.spexcertiprep.com/

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